Refuge Punctate

grog temperedgrog tempered

from David Anderson's Refuge Type Descriptions


Previously undefined, although this type corresponds to Refuge Punctate, var. Moultrie defined by Anderson et al. (1982:268-269) at Mattassee Lake based on a sample of 14 sherds. That variety name is here formally sunk and replaced with the name Refuge Separate Punctate. A Refuge Punctated type was originally proposed by Waring (1968b:200), and DePratter (1979:120-121) offered a formal description. As so defined, however, Refuge Punctated is indistinguishable from Thom's Creek Reed Separate Punctate, and the name is here formally sunk. The punctation observed at Mattassee Lake did not resemble typical Thom's Creek decorations. The finish was characterized by small, irregular circular punctations resembling rounded dentates, and occurred on sherds with the same temperless to clay-grog paste noted in the Refuge Dentate Stamped sherds at the site. The surface finish on Refuge Separate Punctate closely resembles Wheeler Punctated finish (e.g. Sears and Griffin 1950), suggesting a possible derivation from that type (or possibly vice versa).

Sorting Criteria

Small (2.0-5.0 mm), irregular, shallow (0.5-2.0 mm) circular punctations; less commonly square or oval, randomly applied over the exterior surface. Paste highly variable, typically temperless or tempered with small (0.5-2.0 mm) lumps of aplastic clay (grog); less commonly with dense fine to coarse sand. May be confused with Thom's Creek Reed Separate Punctate and Refuge Dentate Stamped.


Poorly documented. The type appears to be a minority among Refuge ceramics, with a distribution comparable to that for the series (see Refuge Dentate Stamped).

Chronological Position

Early Woodland period. Refuge I Phase (1500BC-800BC). At Mattassee Lake Refuge Punctate occurs stratigraphically early, coeval with the Thom's Creek types, and below Refuge Dentate Stamped in the 38BK226 block unit. This suggests that the ware may date to the earlier part of the phase.

Primary References

Anderson et al. (1982:268-269); DePratter (1979:120-121, 1992); Waring (1968b:200).